LISTSERV mailing list manager LISTSERV 16.0

Help for ARSCLIST Archives


ARSCLIST Archives

ARSCLIST Archives


ARSCLIST@LISTSERV.LOC.GOV


View:

Message:

[

First

|

Previous

|

Next

|

Last

]

By Topic:

[

First

|

Previous

|

Next

|

Last

]

By Author:

[

First

|

Previous

|

Next

|

Last

]

Font:

Proportional Font

LISTSERV Archives

LISTSERV Archives

ARSCLIST Home

ARSCLIST Home

ARSCLIST  June 2004

ARSCLIST June 2004

Subject:

Re: earliest recording of "uh"/"um"/other disfluency?

From:

Mike Loughlin <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Association for Recorded Sound Discussion List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Fri, 18 Jun 2004 16:21:39 -0400

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (208 lines)

The 1888 "white wax" recording of Thomas Edison (who "uhs" on all of his
recordings)  and Col. Gouraud's recordings of speakers from England
welcoming the phonograph have plenty of "uhs" and unless you can make out
some stuttering on the 1878 "clock" recording must be the earliest examples
of recorded speech tics since they are also the oldest examples of recorded
speech.

Mike Loughlin





>From: Michael Erard <[log in to unmask]>
>Reply-To: Association for Recorded Sound Discussion List
><[log in to unmask]>
>To: [log in to unmask]
>Subject: [ARSCLIST] earliest recording of "uh"/"um"/other disfluency?
>Date: Fri, 18 Jun 2004 11:46:16 -0500
>
>All,
>
>I am a writer based in Austin, Texas, who is working on a book about
>verbal blundering, including speech slips and speech disfluencies. I
>wonder if you can help me find early recorded examples of these
>features of spoken language, including:
>
>uh, um, and other filled pauses
>repeated words ("I went went to the store")
>restarted sentences ("The main thing is -- Look at it this way...")
>stuttering (both by "normal" speakers and by people who stutter)
>silent pauses (not for effect, but because the speaker is looking for a
>word)
>
>also:
>
>malapropisms
>Spoonerisms
>"Freudian slips"
>garden variety anticipations, perseverations, omissions & blends of sounds
>
>also:
>grammatical errors
>other phonological, syntactic or semantic gaffes
>
>I would very much appreciate being in touch with people who can speak
>about these features of spoken language in their collections, not
>only in detailed terms (as in being able to identify specific
>recordings that contain them) but also the socio-technological issues
>involved in recording them (e.g., when cheaper recording techniques
>allowed people to record spontaneous speech, not only formal,
>pre-prepared speech).
>
>Below I am appending a piece I wrote for the New York Times about the
>scientific study of "uh" and "um." My work about language has
>appeared in the New York Times, the Atlantic Monthly, Legal Affairs,
>Lingua Franca, Brill's Content, and Technology Review, and my
>reporting on culture & politics has appeared in Rolling Stone, Wired,
>the Texas Observer, and a number of other publications.
>
>Thank you very much in advance.
>
>Sincerely,
>Michael Erard
>
>Think Tank: Just Like, Er, Words, Not, Um, Throwaways
>
>January 3, 2004
>  By MICHAEL ERARD
>
>
>
>
>
>If you were hearing this instead of reading it, you might
>notice a pause here and there tucked between the phrases,
>filled with a familiar, soft hum or rumble - an um or uh.
>
>Though a bane to teachers of public speaking, people around
>the world fill pauses in their own languages as naturally
>as watermelons have seeds. In Britain they say uh but spell
>it er, just as they pronounce er in butter.
>
>The French say something that sounds like euh, and Hebrew
>speakers say ehhh. Serbs and Croats say ovay, and the Turks
>say mmmmm. The Japanese say eto (eh-to) and ano (ah-no),
>the Spanish este, and Mandarin speakers neige (NEH-guh) and
>jiege (JEH-guh). In Dutch and German you can say uh, um,
>mmm. In Swedish it's eh, ah, aah, m, mm, hmm, ooh, a and
>oh; in Norwegian, e, eh, m and hm.
>
>These interruptions, it turns out, plague machines more
>than people - speech-recognition systems in particular - so
>researchers have increasingly been turning their attention
>to uh and um (among other so-called disfluencies).
>
>"If someday you want machines to be as smart as people,
>then you have to have machines that understand speech
>that's natural, and natural speech has lots of disfluencies
>in it," said Liz Shriberg, a research psychologist at
>S.R.I. International, a research company based in Menlo
>Park, Calif. Uh and um might tell a computer about a
>speaker's alertness or emotional state so the system can
>adjust itself and let people speak naturally to
>speech-to-text programs.
>
>Well before the invention of speech recognition, Frieda
>Goldman-Eisler, a psychologist in London in the 1950's,
>inaugurated the modern study of disfluencies by developing
>instruments that counted pauses in speech and measured
>their duration. Ms. Goldman-Eisler, who was looking for a
>way to make psychiatric interviews more efficient, found
>that 50 percent of a person's speaking time is made up of
>silence. She also hypothesized that a speaker planned his
>next words for the length of the uh or um.
>
>Around the same time a psychiatrist at Yale, George Mahl,
>counted uhs and nine other speech disfluencies in order to
>measure a person's anxiety level, calculating that during
>every 4.4 seconds of spontaneous speech, on average, one
>disfluency occurs. Eighty-five percent were uh and um,
>restarted sentences and repeated words. A slip of the
>tongue - upon which Sigmund Freud practically built an
>intellectual career - occurred less than 1 percent of the
>time.
>
>Ms. Goldman-Eisler and Mr. Mahl treated uh and um as
>symptoms of nervousness and verbal struggle. But once
>cheap, fast computers made digitized speech easy to study
>in the 1990's, the approach changed. Researchers began to
>study verbal pauses for meaning; they focused on the words
>as information.
>
>By far the newest - and most controversial - idea comes
>from Herbert Clark, a psychologist at Stanford, and Jean
>Fox Tree, a psychologist at the University of California,
>Santa Cruz, who determined that speakers use (and listeners
>understand) uh and um in distinct ways. Uh signals a
>forthcoming pause that will be short, while um signals a
>longer pause, she said. Uh and um are not acoustic
>accidents, but full-fledged words that signal a delay yet
>to come. Of course that is not necessarily a good thing in
>public speaking. "It makes you look weak when people have
>come to hear you prepared, and you're not prepared," Mr.
>Clark said.
>
>Ms. Fox Tree, who is a former student of Mr. Clark's,
>became interested in uhs and ums as an undergraduate
>majoring in linguistics at Harvard. There she realized that
>theories of language could not account for the fragmented
>nature of ordinary conversation.
>
>"I thought, here's something you hear in every single
>conversation during the day, some kind of disfluency, and
>yet people treat them as if they're garbage," she said.
>"Why are they there? Why do we use them?"
>
>Ms. Fox Tree studies other discourse markers like you know,
>I mean and oh, and is working on so and and. Her dream
>topic is like.
>
>"I waited before I got tenure to study like," she
>confessed, "because I thought it was going to be messy and
>hard to get a hold of, and I would spend all this time
>studying it."
>
>Ms. Shriberg agrees that these disruptions are more than
>white noise. "When you realize these things are distributed
>in very clean ways and have a very elegant structure," she
>said, "then you can see they're not garbage at all."
>
>Heather Bortfeld, a psychologist who studies infant
>language development at Texas A&M University, discovered
>this through personal experience. While living in Madrid
>during her junior year in college, she noticed the distinct
>sounds the Spanish used to fill their pauses.
>
>"These were often conveying important information that I
>had to learn about," Ms. Bortfeld said. "And then I had to
>learn how to make them myself in order to sound more native
>and to really be speaking Spanish correctly."
>
>In 2001 Ms. Bortfeld and others reported in the journal
>Language and Speech that speakers taking a more active role
>in tasks said uh and um, repeated words and restarted
>sentences more frequently than those in a passive role. Men
>say uh and um more than women, though their overall
>disfluency rate was the same. One piece of conventional
>wisdom fell by the wayside: whether or not the speaker and
>listener knew each other had no effect on uh or um rates.
>
>But it may be Nicholas Christenfeld, a psychologist at the
>University of California, San Diego, and other researchers
>who have come up with the most appealing findings. He
>counted uhs among professors giving lectures and found that
>the humanities professors say you know and uh 4.85 times
>per minute, social scientists 3.84 and natural science
>professors 1.39 times, which, he said, suggests that
>humanists have more expressive options from which to
>choose.
>
>And for those trying to minimize their verbal tics, Mr.
>Christenfeld also found that drinking alcohol reduces ums.

_________________________________________________________________
MSN 9 Dial-up Internet Access fights spam and pop-ups  now 3 months FREE!
http://join.msn.click-url.com/go/onm00200361ave/direct/01/

Top of Message | Previous Page | Permalink

Advanced Options


Options

Log In

Log In

Get Password

Get Password


Search Archives

Search Archives


Subscribe or Unsubscribe

Subscribe or Unsubscribe


Archives

January 2020
December 2019
November 2019
October 2019
September 2019
August 2019
July 2019
June 2019
May 2019
April 2019
March 2019
February 2019
January 2019
December 2018
November 2018
October 2018
September 2018
August 2018
July 2018
June 2018
May 2018
April 2018
March 2018
February 2018
January 2018
December 2017
November 2017
October 2017
September 2017
August 2017
July 2017
June 2017
May 2017
April 2017
March 2017
February 2017
January 2017
December 2016
November 2016
October 2016
September 2016
August 2016
July 2016
June 2016
May 2016
April 2016
March 2016
February 2016
January 2016
December 2015
November 2015
October 2015
September 2015
August 2015
July 2015
June 2015
May 2015
April 2015
March 2015
February 2015
January 2015
December 2014
November 2014
October 2014
September 2014
August 2014
July 2014
June 2014
May 2014
April 2014
March 2014
February 2014
January 2014
December 2013
November 2013
October 2013
September 2013
August 2013
July 2013
June 2013
May 2013
April 2013
March 2013
February 2013
January 2013
December 2012
November 2012
October 2012
September 2012
August 2012
July 2012
June 2012
May 2012
April 2012
March 2012
February 2012
January 2012
December 2011
November 2011
October 2011
September 2011
August 2011
July 2011
June 2011
May 2011
April 2011
March 2011
February 2011
January 2011
December 2010
November 2010
October 2010
September 2010
August 2010
July 2010
June 2010
May 2010
April 2010
March 2010
February 2010
January 2010
December 2009
November 2009
October 2009
September 2009
August 2009
July 2009
June 2009
May 2009
April 2009
March 2009
February 2009
January 2009
December 2008
November 2008
October 2008
September 2008
August 2008
July 2008
June 2008
May 2008
April 2008
March 2008
February 2008
January 2008
December 2007
November 2007
October 2007
September 2007
August 2007
July 2007
June 2007
May 2007
April 2007
March 2007
February 2007
January 2007
December 2006
November 2006
October 2006
September 2006
August 2006
July 2006
June 2006
May 2006
April 2006
March 2006
February 2006
January 2006
December 2005
November 2005
October 2005
September 2005
August 2005
July 2005
June 2005
May 2005
April 2005
March 2005
February 2005
January 2005
December 2004
November 2004
October 2004
September 2004
August 2004
July 2004
June 2004
May 2004
April 2004
March 2004
February 2004
January 2004
December 2003
November 2003
October 2003
September 2003
August 2003
July 2003
June 2003
May 2003
April 2003
March 2003
February 2003
January 2003

ATOM RSS1 RSS2



LISTSERV.LOC.GOV

CataList Email List Search Powered by the LISTSERV Email List Manager