Dick Spottswood wrote:
> Aren't there heavily incised lead-out grooves on early German pressings?
> If I recall, lateral Brunswicks from 1919 onward used lead out grooves;
> did others in the US/Canada use them earlier?
Pathe also used a lead-out groove for their Actuelle records, at least
in the US; like Brunswick and the electric Columbias, it terminated in a
concentric rather than eccentric locked groove.
Gramophone Company records from the early 20th century (probably up to
about 1904?), all of which were pressed in Hanover, were equipped with a
very abrupt, heavily incised lead-out and locked groove. I think the
spiral was half a revolution! That must have been there just to catch
the sound box and prevent damage to it and the record's label, since
Gramophone machines (and their Victor counterparts) were not equipped
with stopping mechanisms back then.