Are these samples sourced from George's four-arm TT? That's a Technics 1500 (IIRC) with Jelco 850 arms. What cartridge were they using? That thing is ingenious for 78s, but maybe not for LPs. Good TT and arms, but the plinth and its support enter into the calculation, too.
Record players are acoustical systems and everything interacts. The table the turntable sits on effects the sound, so whatever is built up needs to be tuned as a system. If you intend to use a 1200, you might look into getting one modified by KAB. MM cartridges, with easily replaceable styluses, is a practical choice, but you need one(s) suitable for your tonearm. The Audio Technical VM line looks like a good match at reasonable cost. The VM series includes a mono cartridge (VM610); same weight as the VM500 stereo models, so you'd only have to swap headshells to change from stereo to mono. A lot of this depends on your workflow.
I agree with the others that getting the TT right is job one. There are numerous preamps that would be suitable, and bought second-hand not too costly. A to D is a bit more difficult. Don't go too cheap. It's possible to make a device that converts and does USB for under $500, but judging by the one I worked with (MOTU), the sound quality probably sucks. I'd look for something $1000+. There aren’t many that are just 2-channel, but I'd try for that. Lynx Hilo includes D to A at high quality, which you need to properly judge your work. The RME ADI-2 Pro also looks killer.
All this would be easier with plenty of money, but even having to compromise, you can come up with a system that will suit the volume of work and give worthwhile results. It's just harder to arrive at given a tight budget. It's easier to spend money than to acquire knowledge. Ask any marketer. Or audiophile. 😊