In Record Collector 53/4, there is a long article by Christian Zwarg that will answer many questions about Pathe including those in this inquiry.
From: Association for Recorded Sound Discussion List [mailto:[log in to unmask]] On Behalf Of Jolyon S Hudson
Sent: Thursday, September 24, 2020 1:57 PM
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Subject: Re: [ARSCLIST] Pathe label markings
The '12' is the equivalent of a copyright stamp, although in this example it also has a paper stamp applied too. The number equated to a list of mechanical copyright holders of the music. I don't think anyone has yet bothered to work out the sequence.
The '11834' is the transfer serial number for the 29cm disc, that is when a disc 'master' was made via a pantograph transfer from which stampers could be produced. The 24cm issue of the disc had the number '4822'