Error during command authentication.
Error - unable to initiate communication with LISTSERV (errno=111). The server is probably not started.
> Hah! Yes, of course. Well, I say "of course" now that > you've pointed it out. This seems like the kind of problem > that we'd expect to occur more widely in the XML world. Errr no - because the XML world treats an XML document as representing an XML tree not the textual representation i.e. parse the angle bracket stuff into an XML tree, manipulate that tree and then render it back to the angle bracket form rather than manipulate the textual angle bracket directly. In which case this problem does not arise (since the namespace nodes exist at both the definining element and all child elements). > I > wonder whether there are existing guidelines to cover such > things? Well, the guidelines are that you use an XML parser that follows the normal rules for handling XML namespaces in which case it doesn't matter want form you use... However, > In general, I guess the rule is that namespace > definitions should be placed on the innermost element that > they affect There is a canonical XML form which is primarily used for encryption/signing when you do want the same XML tree to generate the same textual representation (generally an XML tree has an infinite set of textual representations!). In canonical XML, the namespaces go into the root element. Matthew