The following elements in PREMIS are allowed to be empty:

- creatingApplication
- environment
  - dependency

>From the schema point of view this is no big deal, it allows an empty
element in the record. But from the semantic view this basically says:
you don't have to preserve A, but if you do want to preserve it, you
still can just give me an empty record. Perhaps a bit more elaboration
on this part can help the semantics to be clearer.

For example, if we do want to preserve the creatingApplication, perhaps
at least we must preserve either the creatingApplicationName or the
dateCreatedByApplication, or both, otherwise some record may only
contain a creatingApplicationVersion number without specifying who and

For environment, we may want to choose from any one or all of
environmentCharacteristic, environmentPurpose, environmentNote,
dependency, software, and hardware.

In case of dependency, I think perhaps dependencyIdentifier needs to be
mandatory, because the dependencyName is just a hint.

What do you think?


Zhiwu Xie

Graduate Research Assistant
Research Library
Los Alamos National Lab