With tape splices, at least tape splices used quite frequently in commercial music and voice-over 
editing, there's no automated way to replace or fix them. There are many different crossfade 
splicing techniques and some editors were so good they could splice on the fly without a standard 
Editall block. Steve, I figure you must have seen some more creative splices cross your studio? How 
could you automate fixing those? Working with more private-collection "civilian" tapes than 
commercial masters, I've seen plenty of splices that were obviously made with scissors and pick your 
tape type. The non-standard splice angle is the least problem, and the crooked edges before and 
after the splice aren't the biggest problem. No, the biggest problem is that name your tape left 
name your residue and some of the glues are so volatile that they actually bond into acetate or 
polyester and cannot be chemically washed off. My solution to that is minimize the splice-bump on 
the back of the tape by very, very careful peeling of the residue raised above the backing surface. 
Er, you got a machine that can do any of this? I didn't think so! If I were sitting on a large stack 
of material needing transfer, the LAST place I'd throw money is a fool's quest for some monster 
machine. Instead, I'd be out recruiting the most efficient and skilled workers I could find so we 
could successfully live the mantra -- DO IT RIGHT AND DO IT ONCE.

By the way, Hollywood understands this and spend big on expertise to restore and preserve sound and 
picture elements. Yes, some processes have been automated, but much is still done painstakingly by 
hand, and if you talk to the old-schoolers they wish more were still being done by hand because the 
machines screw things up all the time and it costs good money to get a skilled expert to fix the 
screwups. Hollywood has a business model that allows top-drawer people and equipment. I'll agree 
from the outset that most or none of us have a similar business model. So our magic bullet is 
efficiency through great management (ie skilled and smart humans making great decisions about 
priorities and skilled humans doing it right and doing it once).

-- Tom Fine

----- Original Message ----- 
From: "Steven Smolian" <[log in to unmask]>
To: <[log in to unmask]>
Sent: Thursday, May 17, 2007 6:01 PM
Subject: Re: [ARSCLIST] Mass Digitization

> Suppose the tape widt were measure beforehand and reels assigned to suitably sized splicing block 
> stations?
> Stedve Smolian
> ----- Original Message ----- 
> From: "Robert Hodge" <[log in to unmask]>
> To: <[log in to unmask]>
> Sent: Thursday, May 17, 2007 4:23 PM
> Subject: Re: [ARSCLIST] Mass Digitization
>> Not even film can be spliced automatically due to the fact that it
>> shrinks
>> and will not fit on a splicer fixture designed to accept non shrunken
>> film.
>> As the shrinkage percentage can vary widely in both longitudinal and
>> horizontal planes, I suspect that any attempt to automate it will be
>> doomed to failure.
>> Yes, it takes a skilled preson to do it correctly !  Without Question
>> !!
>> R. Hodge
>> Robert Hodge,
>> Senior Engineer
>> Belfer Audio Archive
>> Syracuse University
>> 222 Waverly Ave .
>> Syracuse N.Y. 13244-2010
>> 315-443- 7971
>> FAX-315-443-4866
>>>>> [log in to unmask] 5/17/2007 3:53 PM >>>
>> Boy, if it were my company jewels (assets), I sure wouldn't trust a
>> robot to fix splices. That's a
>> real skill that takes a skilled person. Remember that film is
>> sproketed, so perhaps
>> splice-fix-automation is easier to design.
>> Also, why do you say "ALL" polyester tape needs baking? Where do you
>> get that? Only certain types of
>> know sticky-shed tapes from certain eras need baking.
>> Instead of taking the typical engineer road and trying to invent some
>> overblown gadget, companies
>> and institutions should realize the need to spend what it takes to get
>> skilled labor to do the job
>> right. Skilled labor can do a better job working with relatively simple
>> and non-costly setups. The
>> biggest threat to archiving is mass-inefficiency and duplicated labor
>> because of non-communication
>> and fiefdom/stovepipe mentalities. Again, better to invest in the
>> skilled personnel to run these
>> organizations correctly.
>> -- Tom Fine
>> ----- Original Message ----- 
>> From: "Steven Smolian" <[log in to unmask]>
>> To: <[log in to unmask]>
>> Sent: Thursday, May 17, 2007 3:29 PM
>> Subject: Re: [ARSCLIST] Mass Digitization
>>> If we're going to discuss this a possible solution, we need to look
>> at the inevitable  problems
>>> that will arise and figure out ways to deal with them beforehand.
>>> Splices have to be checked and remade, tape baked, etc., etc., etc.
>> That's real reel time.  If
>>> that is not done, there will be a lot of crashing and (non disc)
>> burning.
>>> Have the film people come up with an automatic splicer (for pre
>> digital film?)  If so, perhaps
>>> that technology could be applied to tape, at least, acetate based.
>> ALL polyester would have to be
>>> baked and quickly also run through the auto-resplicer, should one
>> exist, befor the tape becomes
>>> sticky again.
>>> There will surely be a need for pressure pad machines, with tape
>> candidates requiring their use
>>> having been selected by a human, since flatening curled tape
>> naturally is time consuming.
>>> We may have to live with out-of-phase stereo in first level storage
>> and correct it at playback.
>>> So let's look at this not as a problem but as a design issue.
>>> The sky will fall only if we let it.
>>> Steve Smolian
>>> ----- Original Message ----- 
>>> From: "Andes, Donald" <[log in to unmask]>
>>> To: <[log in to unmask]>
>>> Sent: Thursday, May 17, 2007 2:59 PM
>>> Subject: Re: [ARSCLIST] Mass Digitization
>>> Since we're mostly in agreement, I'll try keep my responses short.
>>> See below...
>>> -----Original Message-----
>>> From: Association for Recorded Sound Discussion List
>>> [mailto:[log in to unmask]] On Behalf Of Karl Miller
>>> Sent: Thursday, May 17, 2007 8:21 AM
>>> To: [log in to unmask]
>>> Subject: Re: [ARSCLIST] Mass Digitization
>>> "Andes, Donald" <[log in to unmask]> wrote:
>>> ***It's most likely that our Archeologist friends are better than we
>> at
>>> developing cost effective plans to achieve their goal, which may be
>>> easier when justifying project costs against the collection of
>>> "priceless" artifacts. It is also very possible that we're comparing
>>> apples to oranges, as they most likely have very different funding
>>> sources.
>>> **Over the years I have reviewed many grant applications for audio
>>> preservation projects. The content and methodology have ranged from
>> well
>>> considered to the absurd. The question really that comes to my mind
>> is
>>> the notion of cost effective. Grant funding is, by design, not
>>> predicated on notions of "cost effective." Also, very few proposals
>> I
>>> have read, address questions of efficiency. It is my thinking that
>> cost
>>> effective means that it can pay for itself. I believe that the
>>> copyrights in the US, and the very functionalism of libraries (free
>> to
>>> the public) prevent libraries and archives from realizing
>> substantive
>>> financial return for their efforts.
>>> **I guess I don't see that we are comparing apple and oranges, unless
>> we
>>> choose to make such a differentiation. It seems to me that uncovering
>> a
>>> fragment of a clay pot, is not unlike reclaiming a bit of audio.
>> Once
>>> the "artifact" has been recovered, there is then the question of
>>> cataloging it and its preservation.
>>> The apples to oranges retort come from the fact that nothing you'll
>>> uncover by digging in the ground comes with copyright, performance,
>> and
>>> estate issues. Also, most of what Archeoloigists are looking for
>> have
>>> wider appeal, since it connect dots in the greater fabric of our
>>> existence. Uncovering a audio masterpiece may help us understand a
>>> composers intent, or help resolve a dispute over chord progressions
>> or
>>> unresolved notes, but it's still a very niche area. Again scope
>> comes
>>> into play here.
>>> ***2) The under appreciation/underpaying of Library and Archiving
>> staff:
>>> The world today (more than ever) comes down to profitability. Since
>>> libraries don't make profits, it falls in line that there not going
>> to
>>> be handling out high paying jobs working for a Library. High paying
>> jobs
>>> can easily be had in the Finance, Legal, and Medical worlds. This
>> has
>>> been true for years, but for librarians the cold hard facts haven't
>>> sunken in. Do I believe they should be paid more, of course I do. But
>> do
>>> I think they ever will, not in my lifetime.
>>> **I agree. I would also suggest that the available salaries for
>>> libraries will continue to decline due to the decline in use
>> statistics.
>>> I believe it will be increasingly difficult for those charged with
>>> making budget decisions to justify library budgets. However, one
>> needs
>>> to keep in mind that libraries and archives exist as "public
>> utilities"
>>> of a sort. They are funded as we fund our fire departments. They are
>>> seen as serving a common good. Yet, indeed, as the funding of public
>>> utilities is being more subject to funding predicated on use, (toll
>>> roads being but one example) libraries are very likely to experience
>>> even more substantive reductions in public funding.
>>> **My thinking is that libraries seem to be trying to compete in
>> areas
>>> where they have already lost. Libraries are trying to counter the
>>> defection to google and yahoo, by becoming movie theaters and snack
>>> bars.
>>> **On the other hand, I believe that libraries need to refocus their
>>> remaining resources more to the preservation of our intellectual
>>> history...being museums of a different sort.
>>> Not to play the pessimist, but I find Libararies will be following
>>> records stores to their demise, and I question what can be done, so
>> late
>>> in the game to change the inevitable.
>>> Also, Police and Fire services can be seen as government protection
>>> against liabilities. Libraries do not offer this function to the
>>> government with it serves.
>>> ***The fact is that we have massive amounts of history from the
>> 1900's
>>> in every field. Are we missing important stuff, sure we are. But the
>>> unfortunate fact is that not enough people care enough about what's
>>> missing. And more so, not enough profitability can be had from
>>> collecting what was lost, to make it a worthwhile endeavor.
>>> **Indeed, that is my question, what can we realistically hope to
>>> preserve. Also tied into that question is the criteria used to
>> decide
>>> what we should preserve. Who has those skills? What sort of training
>> is
>>> needed?
>>> I believe we COULD preserve it all, however, we (the archival
>> community)
>>> need to start putting more time into large scale cohesive planning
>> and
>>> lobbying for funding to support it, instead of running around crying
>>> that the sky is falling.
>>> Just take a look at what Google books is doing. I'm not in 100%
>>> agreement with the plan or it's direction, but think of the scale.
>> Think
>>> of what they set out to accomplish. Strange, how no one IN the
>> community
>>> thinks on this level.
>>> ***Think of it: That lost treasure of sound, that we thought the
>> world
>>> would never hear again. Suddenly found, in pristine condition....How
>>> many downloads, CD's excetera could you possibly sell? Unless it the
>>> Beatles or Elvis it's most likely a lot LESS than you would think.
>>> **Having my own record company and having issued historic
>> performances,
>>> I have some practical experience. I can find no rationale for what
>> sells
>>> and what does not.
>>> **I am often reminded of the interest in the music of Mahler. While
>>> there were a few of the faithful around when he died...consider the
>>> notion that since he was not given much credit as a composer when he
>>> died, nobody preserved his manuscripts. We now have a market for
>> Mahler.
>>> It is difficult to second guess what product might find that
>> "Tipping
>>> point" and what might not. Thankfully, Mahler's music has been
>>> preserved. How do you know there is a market for a product unless
>> you
>>> have the product  and make it available?
>>> Well that's what the business is all about. We do market research,
>> sign
>>> artists, and take chances. We don't sign everyone we could, and we
>> don't
>>> always sign artists that are profitable. Regardelss, it's highly
>>> unlikely that any "found" audio will reap large sums of money;
>>> especially in this market already inundated with catalog releases
>> and
>>> slipping CD sales.
>>> ***3) Metadata concerns:
>>> Here's the white elephant in the room. Everyone wants to
>>> preserve/transfer/digitize, but guess what??? If you don't have a
>>> complete and correct metadata standard in place, you'll probably do
>> more
>>> harm then good. Once things are transferred, the value of storing
>> the
>>> original drops (to the non archivist) and people assume that they'll
>>> never need to go back to it. That is until, we try to understand
>> what
>>> the heck the file is, since your metadata seems spotty, and possibly
>>> incorrect.
>>> **Again, I agree completely. While great work is being done in Music
>>> Information Retrieval,  as for the metadata, libraries are having a
>>> rough time these days. I consider the aborted attempts to revise the
>>> cataloging rules. I believe it is time for a complete overhaul of
>>> cataloging (metadata preparation, description, and cataloging
>>> methodology).  It is my hope that some enterprising company will come
>> up
>>> with some highly efficient, less labor intensive, system for the
>>> creation of metadata, one that is so inexpensive that libraries will
>> be
>>> forced into making changes.
>>> **I believe it is irrational to expect libraries to do it on their
>> own.
>>> To abandon MARC voluntarily seems not only unlikely, but
>>> irrational...there is too much money invested in the old
>> methodology.
>>> Like Google books, I'm sure those outside the industry will figure
>> this
>>> all out for us, whether the solution is fool proof or not.
>> Regardless,
>>> it will just verify that our industry is lost and behind the times,
>> and
>>> our dismal salaries are in line with what they should be.
>>> ****4) Formatting/Migration issues:
>>> Yikes. This was hiding being the white elephant called metadata. And
>>> again, unless you figure this out UP FRONT, why bother digitizing?
>>> **I agree in part. While there are many valid points to be made to
>>> reformat recordings on stable media, I am a firm believer in
>> addressing
>>> the media which is chemically unstable.
>>> Obviously migrating to avoid permanemt loss is manditory, but
>> digitizing
>>> analog reels in stable condition without connecting all the dots
>> seems
>>> pointless to me, which is why I advocate against it.
>>> ****5) And finally to address your last statement:
>>> I think the archiving world has it's blinders on, and needs to pull
>>> back, rationalize a bit, and find it's place in the modern world of
>>> business, technology, culture, and government. It's not effort or
>> caring
>>> that this industry lacks; it's scope, direction and rational.
>>> **Again, I agree.
>>> **I believe that the pressures from the private sector are forcing
>>> libraries and archives to reconsider their place in society. I would
>>> wager that many of us have plenty of good ideas as to how to
>>> significantly increase library productivity and  perhaps even
>> provide
>>> some cost recovery...and I am not taking about coffee bars...I wonder
>> if
>>> there is anything that can be done from within the profession, or if
>> we
>>> just need to sit back and wait for the changes to be forced from the
>>> private sector. I guess I just don't see libraries and archives
>> taking
>>> the initiative to change...and sadly, I believe a great deal of our
>>> history stands to be lost in the process of waiting.
>>> **Sadly, I see libraries ignoring (I use the word ignore since such
>> a
>>> small percentage of ARL member's budgets is devoted to preservation)
>>> what I see to be their greatest resource, their unique holdings.
>>> **Yet, for me, the question remains, is there some way to
>> significantly
>>> realign priorities within libraries? It seems to me that the changes
>>> need to come from outside the preservation profession. The question
>> is,
>>> what is the best marketing strategy and how do we go about mounting
>> our
>>> advertizing campaign.
>>> Marketing and PR are taken to be in opposition to public use and
>>> non-profit, but the two can actually work had and hand quite nicely.
>> The
>>> problem goes back to re-identifying what libraries and archives are,
>>> what they could be, and what they should be. When I was a kid,
>> libraries
>>> didn't have any direct competition beyond the local bookstore. But
>> now
>>> with Wal-Mart, Barnes and Noble, Blockbuster and Virgin Megastores
>>> competing in BOTH the brick and motar AND online space it's no
>> wonder
>>> the public isn't flocking to libraries. I myself haven't found the
>> need
>>> to go in years.
>>> **I used to wonder if part of the problem had to do with the way
>> society
>>> views the role of music. Our copyrights seem to deal with it as a
>>> consumable. Yet I then consider how we have such things as a "Museum
>> of
>>> Broadcasting." We seem to place some value on consumables. But do we
>>> place more value on "I Love Lucy" than we do on Perry Como...or
>>> "Omnibus" versus some of the more esoteric bits of our musical
>> heritage.
>>> It would seem the answer is yes. Then the question comes to my mind,
>>> will Lucy be as valued 100 years from now as say an Omnibus program
>>> featuring Frank Lloyd Wright. I wonder...then, should the library
>> and
>>> archive world be more concerned with what is not economically viable
>> and
>>> leave that which has a potential for "cost recovery," to the private
>>> sector.
>>> We all have to remember that the populous doesn't even scratch the
>>> surface beyond commercially availible music and film releases. I
>> enjoy
>>> genres of music that have never had commercial success in this
>> country,
>>> and most likely never will. I have literally thousands of records
>> that
>>> could vanish without anyone understanding their ramifications. But I
>>> understand, I'm in a niche, of a niche, of a niche. These recordings
>>> connect the dots for a few very low key genres but do not register
>> on
>>> the radar of the public scope.
>>> Question: If we could look back in great detail on the times of any
>>> ancient civilization, what would be more relivant: the tastes, and
>>> likings of the masses (aka the Mozarts, Michalangelos, and
>>> Shakespeares), or the concerns and pickings of the trivial ubergeeks
>>> like ourselves (obsure no name, short lived, fringe artists)?
>>> **Should an organization like EMI, donate (the objects and the
>> rights)
>>> whatever holdings it sees as having no revenue potential to the
>>> non-profit, public sector?
>>> EMI UK, does have a non-profit historic trust, and donates a wide
>>> variety of older reordings and technologies to it. I am currently
>> trying
>>> to establish something here in the US along those lines, but cannot
>>> discuss it any more than that.
>>> **Karl
>>> -
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