Thanks for responses. So opinion remains divided? As a new subscriber to
this list I am unable to evaluate the different responses with any

In the Outline of elements and attributes (3.3) page is the statement:

All top-level elements and all attributes are optional, but you must have at
least one element. Subelements are optional, although in some cases you may
not have empty containers.

In the MODS User Guidelines (3) page several top level elements are
described as "wrapper" elements but "location" is not so described.

On the same site it is stated:

*Mandatory elements*. No element is mandatory in a MODS record, however,
every MODS record requires at least one element. Applications may wish to
develop profiles specifying mandatory elements as needed.

If it is illegal to use "location" unless it contains a subelement, how
should one interpret the above statements?

Many thanks again for your help.