Dale's question (or I suspect, point made in the form of a question) is right on the mark. All electronic systems, analog or digital, have their limits. The ability to record, reproduce, process, square waves or short impulses for example, depends on a system's high frequency response and dynamic range. There is NO technology out there that can record a pure square wave or infinitely short impulse. Some systems are of course better than others at recording audio band square waves, impulses, and complex waveforms with important high frequency content. But whether they are digital or analog is not the determining factor. It's a mistake to close our minds to digital audio, and its most prominently employed sampling methodology, Linear Pulse Code Modulation (LPCM), just because we might be dissatisfied with CD quality digital audio (16-bit 44.1 kHz sample rate LPCM). Regards, Karl On 4/11/12 7:04 AM, D. Allen wrote: > Dale Francis > > On Apr 11, 2012, at 2:05, "Andrew S. Hamilton"<[log in to unmask]> wrote: > >> It's that the pops and clicks are near square waves, in terms of their rise times, and digital can only capture sines. So, it changes the attack and harmonics of the surface noise and makes it ugly, whereas the same noises on the vinyl are easy to ignore and might even be exciting>?< Incidentally, he said this is also why digital fails to deliver, musically, even though it does great telephony, since the combined harmonic overtones of a full orchestra during a fortissimo would approach a square wave on an oscilloscope, but the CD can't make that happen. So, for all its accuracy and quietude, its just a stomp box (LPCM). >> >> >> Cheers, >> Andrew > > Can either a phono cartridge or a speaker can accurately encounter a square wave without side issues ... needle leaving groove ... -- Karl Fitzke Audio Engineer Macaulay Library Cornell Lab of Ornithology 159 Sapsucker Woods Road Ithaca, NY 14850 607-254-1100 [log in to unmask] Our Mission: To interpret and conserve the Earth's biological diversity through research, education, and citizen science focused on birds.