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And havoc reigned. Especially when orchestras and brass bands used both 
A=440 and A=435 horns together! Not only that but, judging from sales 
catalogs of the period (pre 1930) there was a multiplicity of types of 
horns we either do not see today or that have been bypassed in the name 
of standardization, many of which used the old standard in manufacturing 
the instruments. The only holdout for obscure horns seems to be the 
marching bands of today.
The double standard would explain why some pre-1920 brass 
bands/orchestra recordings sound slightly out of tune, at least to my 
ear. The beat frequencies make for, er... interesting listening.
Malcolm

*******

On 4/28/2015 8:31 AM, Paul Stamler wrote:
> On 4/28/2015 10:36 AM, Doug Pomeroy wrote:
>> Having recently transferred an Edison "80 rpm" disc (one of his 
>> long-players),
>> I can tell you the 80 rpm speed may not be exactly right.  A good 
>> "ear" and an
>> accurate pitch reference for tuning are really necessary, regardless 
>> of how
>> the pitch correction is implemented.
>
> And, to add to the muddle, A-440 is a relatively recent standard. 
> According to the always-reliable Wikipedia:
>
> "Prior to the standardization on 440 Hz, many countries and 
> organizations followed the Austrian government's 1885 recommendation 
> of 435 Hz. The American music industry reached an informal standard of 
> 440 Hz in 1926, and some began using it in instrument manufacturing. 
> In 1936 the American Standards Association recommended that the A 
> above middle C be tuned to 440 Hz."
>
> It's worth noting that Edison got out of the record business in 1929 
> -- only three years after the American music industry's "informal 
> standard" was adopted.
>
> Peace,
> Paul
>
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