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On 11/2/2019 12:54 AM, Francesco Martinelli wrote:
 > what a weird post

Hey, one good way to learn things is to ask people who know about them. 
Mr. Roth is doing that. I'll try to answer a few questions below. Mr. 
Roth, if you're a student writing a term paper, you should investigate 
further using a search engine so you can cite your sources properly. 
Here's a bit for starters.

 > On Fri, Nov 1, 2019 at 6:28 PM 6295LARGE . <[log in to unmask]> wrote:
 >
 >> When were the magnetic and ceramic cartridges invented?

You might want to look at the History section in this article:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic_cartridge#History

It's usually not kosher to cite Wikipedia as a source, but the article 
will include references, and those usually can be cited.

 >> Were orthophonic recordings using microphones?

Properly speaking, there weren't really orthophonic recordings to my 
knowledge; at least, I don't think they were called that, though I may 
be wrong. In 1925 Victor introduced the Orthophonic Victrola phonograph, 
designed by engineers at Western Electric (part of the Bell System) and 
licensed to Victor; it used an acoustical horn, but it had much improved 
performance over previous models. At about the same time, Victor and 
Columbia introduced electrical recordings, using a system also invented 
at Western Electric. They used a condenser microphone (*also* invented 
at Western Electric, in 1916, and specified in the electrical recording 
patent) in the recording process.

Columbia called their electrical recordings Viva-Tonal records; they had 
a "W" in the runout area, standing for Western Electric. Victor called 
them simply "electrical recordings", identified by the letters "VE" on 
the label.

In the 1950s, when the high fidelity boom was underway, Victor (now RCA 
Victor) called their LP records "New Orthophonic", trading on the old 
Victrola phonograph name.

 >> When did phonographs start using speakers instead of horns?

The loudspeaker was patented by Chester W. Rice and Edward V. Kellogg; 
they worked for General Electric, and applied for the patent in 1925.

You might want to dig out a copy of Ronald Gelatt's book "The Fabulous 
Phonograph". It's out of print, but you could look in a library, or at 
www.abebooks.com . It's far from perfect, and it includes some material 
which is now classed as urban legend, but it's a decent introduction.

Peace,
Paul Stamler

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