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Ben:
   Excellent questions. We spend so much time focused on recording technology that don't pay much attention to playback equipment and how long it took the new technology to penetrate the consumer market. We have all seen 1950s era 78s proudly being played on acoustic era wind up machines at antique stores as if they belonged together.

    I think many of us assume that these developments followed immediately after the introduction of electric recording in 1925, but there must have been significant lag time to get new players in the hands of consumers.  Old radio hobbyists probably have a good sense of when these technologies were placed in consumer goods because they work so much with the physical equipment.

    In Section 16 of the massive "Audio Cyclopedia Second Ed 1982" Howard Tremaine has an exhaustive discussion of pickup types, and shows some early models, but he does not really trace the historical developments in a chronological fashion or discuss how they were introduced to consumer equipment. 

Best
Jay

-----Original Message-----
From: Association for Recorded Sound Discussion List <[log in to unmask]> On Behalf Of 6295LARGE .
Sent: Friday, November 01, 2019 1:28 PM
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Subject: [ARSCLIST] Historic details on phonographs

Hello

Can anyone tell me

When were the magnetic and ceramic cartridges invented?

Were orthophonic recordings using microphones?

When did phonographs start using speakers instead of horns?


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Thank you.

Ben Roth